Library

Techno-economical possibilities and system correlations

This deliverable (2.3) has a twofold objective. Partly to complement the parallel deliverable 2.2 report “Draft recommendations for H/C outlook 2050”, and partly to identify and describe different possibilities and combinations for participating cities to explore, with respect to technical and economic strengths and weaknesses of the different low-carbon H/C supply choices available for (dense) urban areas.
19 July 2021
DOWNLOAD

Green gases in cities

Hydrogen, alternative gases and decarbonising cities: Biomethane still emits CO2 at combustion stage and potential methane through production and transportation. It is thus only net zero if the production method leads to additional capturing of CO2 or avoidance of waste. Hydrogen does not emit CO2 at the point of combustion, but there may still be (significant) lifecycle emissions include from: 1) Fossil gas production and transportation through methane leakage (for so called blue or turquoise hydrogen) 2) The limitations of the carbon capture method (the maximum achieved is so far 95%) 3) The electricity used to produce electrolysis hydrogen. As a result, sustainable gases are a scarce premium product and likely to be expensive. Between 1/10 th and ¼ of current fossil gas use by 2050 at EU level.
22 April 2022
DOWNLOAD

Waste heat in district energy

Waste heat is heat generated from some process or infrastructure often emitted to the surrounding air.  The industrial waste heat recovery potential is large but it is still largely untapped- Sweden is world champion on waste heat recovery from industry into district energy: 9% of the heat supply. There is also waste heat generated in cities by the people living and  working in them- there is a potential to meet 10% of the heat demand in EU 28 by using urban waste heat.
22 April 2022
DOWNLOAD

Cost and energy modelling

The work with the heat plan must reflect the local political interests. You can e.g. focus on energy independence, (local) emission-free heating, low-noise heating (no heat pumps in urban areas) etc. Other criteria can be included, e.g. local business development, green transition, (reductions of pollution), better cities to live in, fuel poverty, sector-coupling. The plan may have other (and stronger), underlying, purposes rather than defining why the heat plan process is initiated in your municipality.
22 April 2022
DOWNLOAD